Assessment of Environment Conscience Construction Practices in Pakistan using Signal to Noise Ratio

Environment Driven Construction

  • Sikandar Bilal Khattak University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Iftikhar Hussain University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan
Keywords: Construction, Environment, Green Construction, Sustainable Construction, Signal to Noise Ratio


Construction industry is the second largest employer of both skilled and unskilled labor. Its contribution to global and national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is significant. However,
it is a source of carbon emissions and solid waste as well. The positive impact is more of a community or region based, whereas its contribution to climate change has a global spread. For years, environment-friendly construction, green buildings, lean construction, and sustainable construction has been portrayed as a possible alternative. However, the success factors for environment conscience construction varies from region to region and is the first step towards achieving it. However, no such study exists for a developing and terror hit country like Pakistan. This paper, with the help of a literature review and questionnaire, identifies and quantifies the environmental conscience factors, respectively. The data is then analyzed via Taguchi Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to rank the least and most practiced factors. The results indicate that factors such as type of soil, which has some economic benefits or factors such as clean water, which are client requirements, are mostly considered, whereas factors such as carbon emissions, renewable energy, and recyclable products are least considered.

Author Biographies

Sikandar Bilal Khattak, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan

Department of Industrial Engineering

Iftikhar Hussain, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan

Department of Industrial Engineering


1. (ECIF), E. C. I. F. 2010. Annual Report. Brussels: E.C.I Federation (Ed.).
2. AARSETH, W., AHOLA, T., AALTONEN, K., ØKLAND, A. & ANDERSEN, B. 2017. Project sustainability strategies: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 1071-1083.
3. AMETEPEY, O., AIGBAVBOA, C. & ANSAH, K. 2015. Barriers to Successful Implementation of Sustainable Construction in the Ghanaian Construction Industry. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 1682-1689.
4. ANINK, D., BOONSTRA, C. & MAK, J. 1996. Handbook of sustainable building: an environmental preference method for selection of materials for use in construction and refurbishment. Editorial James and James Ltda, London.
5. ANWAR, S. 2017. Hundred of trees chopeed for metro bus in Islamabad. Express Tribune, May 8, 2017.
6. ARIF, G. M. & HAMID, S. 2009. Urbanization, city growth and quality of life in Pakistan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 10, 196-215.
7. AUGENBROE, G., PEARCE, A. R., GUY, B. & KIBERT, C. 1998. Sustainable construction in the USA; a perspective to the year 2010. Sustainable Development and the Future of Construction, vol. report, 225.
8. BAMGBADE, J. A., KAMARUDDEEN, A. M., NAWI, M. N. M., ADELEKE, A. Q., SALIMON, M. G. & AJIBIKE, W. A. 2019. Analysis of some factors driving ecological sustainability in construction firms. Journal of Cleaner Production, 208, 1537-1545.
9. BANIHASHEMI, S., HOSSEINI, M. R., GOLIZADEH, H. & SANKARAN, S. 2017. Critical success factors (CSFs) for integration of sustainability into construction project management practices in developing countries. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 1103-1119.
10. BAUM, M. & COUNCIL, U. G. B. 2007. Green building research funding: an assessment of current activity in the United States, US Green Building Council Washington, DC.
11. BERTAUX, D. 1981. Bibliography and society: the life history approach in the social sciences, Sage London.
12. CIRCO, C. J. 2007. Using mandates and incentives to promote sustainable construction and green building projects in the private sector: a call for more state land use policy initiatives. Penn St. L. Rev., 112, 731.
13. CUSHMAN, M., CORNFORD, T. & VENTERS, W. 2005. Knowledge about sustainability: SSM as a method for conceptualising the UK construction industry’s knowledge environment. CIT. Journal of computing and information technology, 13, 137-148.
14. ELATTAR, S. M. S. 2009. Towards developing an improved methodology for evaluating performance and achieving success in construction projects. Scientific Research and Essays, 4, 549-554.
15. GAN, X., ZUO, J., YE, K., SKITMORE, M. & XIONG, B. 2015. Why sustainable construction? Why not? An owner's perspective. Habitat International, 47, 61-68.
16. GLAVIČ, P. & LUKMAN, R. 2007. Review of sustainability terms and their definitions. Journal of cleaner production, 15, 1875-1885.
17. GOEL, A., GANESH, L. S. & KAUR, A. 2019. Deductive content analysis of research on sustainable construction in India: current progress and future directions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 226, 142-158.
18. GUNATILAKE, S. 2013. The Uptake and Implementation of Sustainable Construction: Transforming Policy into Practice. Ph.D, University of Central Lanchashire.
19. HO, L.-H., FENG, S.-Y. & YEN, T.-M. 2014. A New Methodology for Customer Satisfaction Analysis: Taguchi’s Signal-to-Noise Ratio Approach. Journal of Service Science and Management, 7, 235.
20. HUSSAIN, K. 2016. 17,00 more trees to face the axe in lahore. Dawn, May 3rd, 2016.
21. IEA, I. 2011. World Energy Outlook 2011. Int. Energy Agency, 666.
22. KATES, R. W., PARRIS, T. M. & LEISEROWITZ, A. A. 2005. What is sustainable development? Goals, indicators, values, and practice. Environment(Washington DC), 47, 8-21.
23. KHATTAK, I. 2014. 4000 Precious Tree Uprooted for Metro Bus Track. The Nation, May 19, 2014.
24. KIBERT, N. C. & KIBERT, C. J. 2008. Sustainable Development and the US Green Building Movement-Profitable Development Projects Can Be Good for the Planet, Too. Prob. & Prop., 22, 21.
25. KIVILÄ, J., MARTINSUO, M. & VUORINEN, L. 2017. Sustainable project management through project control in infrastructure projects. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 1167-1183.
26. LABUSCHAGNE, C., BRENT, A. C. & VAN ERCK, R. P. 2005. Assessing the sustainability performances of industries. Journal of cleaner production, 13, 373-385.
27. LEE, Y.-C., YEN, T.-M. & TSAI, C.-H. 2008. Modify IPA for quality improvement: Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio approach. The TQM Journal, 20, 488-501.
28. MARTENS, M. L. & CARVALHO, M. M. 2016. Sustainability and success variables in the project management context: an expert panel. Proj. Manag. J., 47, 24-43.
29. MARTENS, M. L. & CARVALHO, M. M. 2017. Key factors of sustainability in project management context: A survey exploring the project managers' perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 1084-1102.
30. MENG, X. 2012. The Effect Of Relationship Management On Project Performance In Construction. International journal of project management, 30, 188-198.
31. MYERS, D. 2005. A review of construction companies' attitudes to sustainability. Construction Management and Economics, 23, 781-785.
32. ONG, K. C. G. 2017. Sustainable Construction for Singapore's Urban Infrastructure – Some Research Findings. Procedia Engineering, 171, 14-21.
33. ORTIZ, O., CASTELLS, F. & SONNEMANN, G. 2009. Sustainability in the construction industry: A review of recent developments based on LCA. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 28-39.
34. PERSSON, U. 2009. Management of Sustainability in Construction Works. Ph.D, Lund Institute of Technology.
35. POWMYA, A. & ABIDIN, N. Z. 2014. The challenges of green construction in Oman. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, 5, 33-41.
36. RAUF, S. 2019. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Encylopaedia Britannica, inc.
37. ROGER FLANAGAN, G. N. 1993. Risk Management and Construction, Wiley-Blackwell.
38. SALAZAR, J. & MEIL, J. 2009. Prospects for carbon-neutral housing: the influence of greater wood use on the carbon footprint of a single-family residence. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17, 1563-1571.
39. TAM, V. W., TAM, C., ZENG, S. & CHAN, K. 2006. Environmental performance measurement indicators in construction. Building and environment, 41, 164-173.
40. UNITED NATIONS. 2017. Sustainable Development Goals [Online]. United Nations. Available: [Accessed August 18 2017].
41. WASTI, S. E. 2016. Pakistan Economic Survey 2015-16. Ministry of Finance.
42. YILMAZ, M. & BAKIŞ, A. 2015. Sustainability in Construction Sector. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 2253-2262.
43. YUN, S. & JUNG, W. 2017. Benchmarking Sustainability Practices Use throughout Industrial Construction Project Delivery. Sustainability, 9, 1007.
How to Cite
Khattak, S., & Hussain, I. (2019, December 31). Assessment of Environment Conscience Construction Practices in Pakistan using Signal to Noise Ratio. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES, 38(2).