• Muhammad Nafees Khan CECOS University Peshawar
  • Iftikhar Hussain UET Peshawar
  • Shehzad Ali Jamshed PG Student, Faculty of Engineering, CECOS University of Information Technology and Emerging Sciences Peshawar, Pakistan
  • misbah Ullah UET Peshawar
  • Muhammad Tahir Iqra National University, Peshawar
Keywords: Tangible aspects, Intangible aspects, Employee performance, Manufacturing organizations


Manufacturing sector of Pakistan is facing tough competition from national & international organizations. In such a competitive environment, organizations can compete effectively by utilizing the potential of its human resource. While managing human resources, it is important to provide such facilities to the employees which result in yielding best employees’ performance. Several organizations, however, struggle to manage performance of their employees. The key research question which this study set out to answer was to see the effects of tangible and intangible aspects on employees’ performance. After a detailed review of the literature, list of tangible and intangible aspects were identified. These aspects were utilized to develop a measure. The findings of the study indicate that organization Lucky Cement Ltd. Pezu, Pakistan, is modestly offering these aspects to their employees. Moreover, results acknowledge that tangible aspects and intangible aspects were related and both having positive effects on the employee performance. A number of recommendations are given regarding implementing these tangible and intangible factors for manufacturing concerns in Pakistan.

Author Biographies

Iftikhar Hussain, UET Peshawar


Department of Industrial Engineering

UET Peshawar

Shehzad Ali Jamshed, PG Student, Faculty of Engineering, CECOS University of Information Technology and Emerging Sciences Peshawar, Pakistan

PG Student,

Faculty of Engineering,

CECOS University of Information Technology and Emerging Sciences

Peshawar, Pakistan



misbah Ullah, UET Peshawar

Associate Professor 

Department of Industrial Engineering

UET Peshawar

Muhammad Tahir, Iqra National University, Peshawar

Lecturer, Department of School of Management and Social Sciences, Iqra National University, Peshawar, Peshawar


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