Variation in Citation Based Fractional Counting of Authorship

Tehmina Amjad, Ishfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Akram Shaikh, Nabila Naz


Existing indexing methods do not consider the variation among number of citations received by publications of authors. In this paper, we propose variation in citation based fractional index  which not only consider the number of authors but also the variation factor in the number of citations.   Index considers the consistency in received citations of publication in addition to their quality and quantity for indexing. We have used Co-efficient of quartile deviation for calculation of variation in received citations because it is sensitive for both skewed and un-skewed data. We have used real world data for validation purpose and have used fractional h- and g-index as our baseline indexing methods. We compared the results of our proposed method with baseline methods and have analyzed that our intuition has clear impact on the authors indexing. Author on higher index in fractional index gets impacted by -index and its rank changes accordingly. Baseline methods do not considers variation factor and it is possible that authors with inconsistent citations receive high index value but if we use variation factor then our results will be more consistent. More the Co-efficient of quartile deviation lower the consistency and thus lower indexing.

Full Text:



J. E. Hirsch, “An index to quantify an individual’s scientific research output,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 102, no. 46, pp. 16569–16572, 2005.

W. Glänzel, “On the opportunities and limitations of the H-index,” Sci. Focus, 2006.

L. Egghe, “Theory and practise of the g-index,” Scientometrics, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 131–152, 2006.

B. Jin, “The AR-index: complementing the h-index,” ISSI Newsl., vol. 3, no. 1, p. 6, 2007.

B. Jin, L. Liang, R. Rousseau, and L. Egghe, “The R-and AR-indices: Complementing the h-index,” Chin. Sci. Bull., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 855–863, 2007.

F. J. Cabrerizo, S. Alonso, E. Herrera-Viedma, and F. Herrera, “q2-Index: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation based on the number and impact of papers in the Hirsch core,” J. Informetr., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2010.

Q. L. Burrell, “Hirsch’s h-index: A stochastic model,” J. Informetr., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 16–25, 2007.

L. Liang, “h-index sequence and h-index matrix: Constructions and applications,” Scientometrics, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 153–159, 2006.

C.-T. Zhang, “The e-index, complementing the h-index for excess citations,” PLoS One, vol. 4, no. 5, p. e5429, 2009.

G. Anania and A. Caruso, “Two simple new bibliometric indexes to better evaluate research in disciplines where publications typically receive less citations,” Scientometrics, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 617–631, 2013.

A. Perianes-Rodríguez and J. Ruiz-Castillo, “Multiplicative versus fractional counting methods for co-authored publications. The case of the 500 universities in the Leiden Ranking,” J. Informetr., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 974–989, 2015.

J. Ruiz-Castillo and L. Waltman, “Field-normalized citation impact indicators using algorithmically constructed classification systems of science,” J. Informetr., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 102–117, 2015.

P. D. Batista, M. G. Campiteli, and O. Kinouchi, “Is it possible to compare researchers with different scientific interests?,” Scientometrics, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 179–189, 2006.

L. Egghe, “Mathematical theory of the h-and g-index in case of fractional counting of authorship,” J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol., vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 1608–1616, 2008.

M. Schreiber, “To share the fame in a fair way, hm modifies h for multi-authored manuscripts,” New J. Phys., vol. 10, no. 4, p. 40201, 2008.

J.-K. Wan, P.-H. Hua, and R. Rousseau, “The pure h-index: calculating an author’sh-index by taking co-authors into account,” COLLNET J. Scientometr. Inf. Manag., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1–5, 2007.

N. A. Aziz and M. P. Rozing, “Profit (p)-index: the degree to which authors profit from co-authors,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 4, p. e59814, 2013.




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 1023-862X  & eISSN:2518-4571