Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (JEAS), Peshawar <p>The Journal of Engineering &amp; Applied Sciences (JEAS) is a bi-annual research journal published by the University of Engineering &amp; Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Shahid Maqsood) (Prof. Dr. Shahid Maqsood) Mon, 20 Nov 2017 09:43:01 -0500 OJS 60 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE PIER SCOUR PATTERN <p><em>Being an important component of a transportation system, bridge piers needs to be properly designed for scouring around its piers. For proper design of bridge piers, appropriate investigation of scouring patterns is extremely important for various sizes and shapes of such piers. Without having research based knowledge of such patterns, it becomes extremely difficult to predict/minimize the scouring effects ultimately leading to severe pier damages. In this research study, experimental investigation is carried out to find the scouring patterns in terms of scour depth and its extent in lateral direction for circular and square pier models. For this purpose a number of experiments were conducted in the physical modeling laboratory of River Engineering and drainage control, USM, Malaysia. The study shows that the pier scour depth and affected area around pier increase with the increase in pier size. The study further demonstrates that the square pier models results in greater scour depth and area as compared to circular pier models. Magnitudes of scour depths and area with reference to variation in shapes and sizes of piers are also presented in this paper, along with contour maps of scour depths, both on upstream and downstream sides.</em></p> Mujahid Khan, Mohammad Tufail, Hazi Muhammad Azmathullah, Muhammad Sagheer Aslam, Fayyaz Ahmad Khan, Asif Khan, Muhammad Fahad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 -0400 STUDY OF INDIGENOUS FLUORSPAR AS METALLURGICAL FLUX <p>The mineral reservoirs of Pakistan have an enormous amount of Fluorspar. Approximately 1 million ton reservoir<br>of Fluorspar was reported previously and is mostly exploitable. Also, around one third of its usage is in the form<br>of metallurgical flux, a key slag fluidizer in steel industry as it increases the fluidity of slag in the ladle furnace.<br>However, it needs to undergo beneficiation process to get it concentrated before being added into the furnace. In this<br>study, we report, for the first time in Pakistan, that the indigenous Fluorspar can directly be used as a metallurgical<br>flux without any beneficiation process as it is rich in Fluorite and also contains small amount of other compounds<br>that are required to be fed as part of slag. Specifically, it contains only trace amount of apatite as compared to<br>global Fluorspar. The composition of indigenous Fluorspar was compared with standard specifications and a detailed<br>characterization was carried out including chemical, mineralogical, and spectroscopic analysis. Further, indigenous<br>Fluorspar was applied as flux in the ladle refining operation of a local steel mill of Pakistan and results were stated<br>on the basis of degree of desulphurization and different basicity indexes</p> Junaid Saleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 NOISE CONTROL FILTRATION OF LATERAL AND YAW DYNAMICS FOR RAILWAY VEHICLE WHEELSET ON TRACK <p>The noise is the fundamental substandard sign of smooth running of the railway vehicle wheelset over the railroad.<br>This disturbance is created deteriorating environment on deranged railway vehicle speed in any direction of basic<br>degree of freedom. In this paper, Brief applicable mathematic is used framed for necessary modeling. The estimation<br>of perturbations for the movement by wheels and velocity of train in lateral and yaw phases are enumerated.<br>Here dual bucy kalman estimator is implemented to decrease the influence of the noise caused due improper ratio<br>of adhesion level upon track. One estimator reduces the overshoot of noise and other to minimize it at lower level<br>of level of error. Further the behavior of lateral and yaw dynamic analysis is observed by implementation of fuzzy<br>inference system through applicable member functions.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF FUEL INJECTION PARAMETERS ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS <p>The climate changes and increase in global temperature are the key factors that have mainly amplified the exploration<br>studies of changing fuel injection and other constraints of compression ignition (CI) engines for the abatement<br>of exhaust emissions. In current study, a direct injection (DI), CI engine was run on a test bench for the performance<br>and emission analyses using different nozzles and injection timings. During the experiments, two types of nozzles<br>known as sac and valve covered orifice (VCO) were used with hemispherical cavity and toroidal cavity pistons,<br>respectively. Besides an already existing set of sac type nozzles, six distinct combinations of nozzles with varying<br>cone angles and tip penetration (protrusion) lengths (designated as 135° × 3.5 mm, 140° × 3.5 mm, 145° × 3.5 mm,<br>150° × 3.5 mm, 150° × 2.5 mm, and 150° × 1.5 mm) were used at three different injection timings comprising 16°<br>before top dead center (BTDC), 13°BTDC and 10°BTDC. Experimental results reveal that VCO nozzles in toroidal<br>combustion chamber (CC) are better than sac nozzles with hemispherical CC, and that wider cone angle nozzles<br>at 10° BTDC give the optimum results in terms of emissions and performance, relative to those of narrower cone<br>angles. The 150° nozzles with 1.5 mm tip penetration give abated carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and<br>smoke emissions along with better performance characteristics such as brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and<br>brake power (BP), while exhibit slightly higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) relative to other combinations. Moreover,<br>the same combination also proves to be effective on emission control at 8 mode steady-state cycle.</p> Ahmad Naveed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER FOR DISPOSAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEQS CRITERIA AND ITS REUSE FOR IRRIGATION WITH DILUTION <p>According to Section 11 of Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) 1997, “No person shall discharge or<br>emit or allow the discharge of any effluent or waste in an amount, concentration or level which is more than the<br>National Environmental Quality Standards(NEQS)”. Even in the presence of this act there are many housing societies<br>and Industrial zones, which are continuously disposing off their untreated wastewater to the natural water bodies. In<br>this study Laboratory investigations on 5 composite samples were carried out. Total of 19 parameters were analyzed<br>including Total Dissolve Solid (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical<br>Oxygen demand (COD), Sulfide, Fluoride, Lead, Nickel, Boron, Copper, Iron, Zinc, Manganese, Chlorine Total and<br>Chromium hexavalent with average value of 502.6, 665.6, 267.4, 453.8, 3.1,5.3 0.6, 0.4, 1.4, 0.5, 0.5, 2.15, 0.6 and<br>0.5 mg/L respectively. TSS, BOD, COD and Mn exceeded the limits of NEQS for all samples.The same wastewater can be used for irrigation purpose if it fulfills FAO irrigation water criteria. For this<br>purpose, important properties like SAR, Sodium ratio, Salt Index, Residual Sodium Carbonate, Permeability Index,<br>Magnesium Adsorption Ratio, Sulfate ion and Boron were analyzed having result of 9.36 √(meq/L), 5.64, 75 ppm,<br>4.66 meq/L, 110.46, 0.42, 6.07 meq/L, 1.386 mg/L mean concentrations respectively, violating the standards. A dilution<br>factor of 1.09 litters is computed per liter of sewage to minimize, the concentrations of exceeded parameters by<br>mixing with normal water, into a range that can be used safely for irrigation.</p> Daulat Khan, Prof. Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 COMPARISON OF ASYMMETRIC GARCH MODELS WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR STOCK MARKETS PREDICTION, A CASE STUDY <p>Much efforts have been done for modeling of financial data theoretically and empirically for the international<br>stock markets, for example: Asia, Europe and Australia etc. But no frequent research has been done for the SAARC<br>countries stock markets. Therefore, bench mark Index of Pakistan; Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE-100) and Bombay<br>Stock Exchange (BSNSE) of India are selected as case study. They are not only the member of SAARC but also sharing<br>the common border, due to this they are also involving in bilateral trading. We used closing indices of daily share<br>price for the period of 1st January, 2010 to 15th January 2016. This study compares the forecasting performance<br>and also investigates more volatile stock markets using Asymmetric GARCH (A-GARCH) models and non-parametric<br>method (Artificial Neural Networks). In the A-GARCH; EGARCH and PGARCH models are used. Firstly, suitable<br>Asymmetric GARCH (A-GARCH) model was developed for forecasting and investigating leverage effect. Secondly,<br>an Artificial Neural Networks model was developed for the said stock markets. Lastly, forecasting performance of the<br>FA-GARCH and ANN models both in and out sample were evaluated using root mean square error. In the A-GARCH;<br>EGARCH (1,1) performed better than PGARCH(1,1) in both stock market data. However, when comparing A-GARCH<br>with ANN, it was found that ANN gave minimum out sample forecasting error as compared to A-GARCH models.<br>Therefore, ANN out played other studied models.</p> Samreen Fatima ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COAGULATION/ FLOCCULATION PROCESSES VIA OPTIMIZATION OF INOCULATION DOSE AND SETTLING TIME <p>This study was conducted on municipal wastewater with an attempt to identify proper treatment measures. The<br>drain under study was observed for three months. In total 45 samples were collected from five different sites at the<br>rate of three samples per day (Morning, Afternoon and Evening). Each sample was a composite of three grab samples<br>collected with four hours intervals. All Samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics. On comparison<br>with Pak NEQS it was observed that the municipal wastewater physicochemical quality was above the permissible<br>limits. A series of coagulation/flocculation treatments were given by applying different doses of ferric chloride in<br>combination of calcium hydroxide. Effective removals of pollutants were obtained by using ferric chloride and calcium<br>hydroxide in ratio of 2:0.5 mL for settling time of 13 minutes. As treatment results, not only removed suspended<br>solids (86%) but a tremendous decrease was observed in color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity by<br>96%, 66% and 89%, respectively.</p> Shafi Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 4LSB BASED DATA HIDING IN COMPLEX REGION OF DIGITAL IMAGES AND ITS EFFECTS ON EDGES AND HISTOGRAM <p>Data hiding in the complex regions of cover image make the use of edges for hiding and communicating secret<br>information. The complex region in a digital image is the least sensitive to human visual system (HVS) in term of<br>changes than smooth region. The data hiding in the complex regions affect the edges and the histogram of the image.<br>These two may cause the existence of hidden information to be detected. In this paper, the effect on image edges<br>and histogram is investigated when subjected to true edge based 4 least significant bits (4LSB) steganography. The<br>true edge based 4LSB steganography technique has been found very efficient, creating no significant effect on edges<br>and undetectable histogram differences. Which prove this technique immune to histogram difference steganalysis. The<br>quality of the edges is preserved and a PNSR of greater than 74dB has been observed for different cover images<br>for the true edge based 4LSB steganography. The quality of stego images, edges can been observed qualitatively<br>and it be seen clearly that no significant changes are introduced due to hiding information in edges using the true<br>edge based steganography.</p> Nasir Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 ROBUST MULTIMODAL FACE RECOGNITION WITH PRE-PROCESSED KINECT RGB-D IMAGES <p>Researchers have tried to improve the accuracy of face recognition by combining 2D and 3D images to overcome<br>the problems of illumination, pose variation and occlusion. Although combining 2D with 3D have shown better results<br>when compared with 2D images only, however applicability of these methods is inadequate in practical implementations<br>due to high cost of 3D sensors, therefore we are using the low cost sensor Kinect acquired images. We do<br>face recognition from RGB images, depth images and then we combine both RGB and depth maps i.e. concatenate<br>different Modalities to improve the accuracy of recognition. Depth maps have holes and noise induced from camera<br>sensors, therefore we process them to remove these distortions and then we apply the face recognition algorithm.<br>Experimental results reveal that the accuracy of face recognition can be increased by combining RGB and depth<br>images and applying pre-processing on depth maps which mitigate the effects of covariates such as holes and noise<br>in the depth maps.</p> Nasir Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 LIFE CYCLE COSTING AND PAYBACK PERIOD EVALUATION OF A SOLAR THERMAL DESALINATION SYSTEM <p>Water is important for life and development. About 1.8 billion people will be living in absolute water scarcity by<br>2025.Non availability of safe drinkable water is the major source of diseases in the different regions of the world<br>especially remote rural and coastal areas. About 97% of water on earth is comprised of seawater. Desalination of<br>saline water is a prominent approach to handle the problem of water scarcity. Conventional desalination technologies<br>cause economic and environmental problems due to their dependency upon fossil fuels. Solar flash desalination<br>is one of the best desalination techniques in the developing stages. Solar energy, passive vacuum and recovery of<br>latent heat of condensation make this system a sustainable option for desalination. In this paper, economic analysis<br>of the solar thermal desalination system of saline water is presented. The unit cost of desalinated water is found to<br>be US$ 0.0147 per litre. The energy and emission payback (EEP) period for vacuum chamber and solar collector<br>has also been presented. The energy payback period of solar collector and vacuum chamber are found to be 1.3<br>years and 1.5 years respectively. The emission payback period of solar collector and vacuum chamber are found to<br>be 1.8 years and 2.1 years respectively.</p> Ahmad Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF COMPRESSOR TO RECOVER FLARE GAS USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT TECHNIQUES <p>The main purpose of this research work is to deploy engineering experimental design techniques to recuperate large<br>quantity of flare gas with the help of a new proposed plant process. Some factors responsible for disturbing routine<br>of compressor are categorized and pertinent information is togethered from various resources. The information is<br>thoroughly studied to enhance factors performance and the factors were set up according to the modified compressor<br>compression system. The suggested equipped factors guide to enhance the recuperate of low pressure burn gas and<br>the proposed approach of the performance parameters guide to cost effective taking out the low pressure flare gas<br>minimizes harmful environmental impacts and achieve financial benefits.</p> Rehman Akhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 CRACK CLOSURE AND FIBRE BRIDGING CONTRIBUTION IN THE STRESSRATIO EFFECT ON DELAMINATION GROWTH UNDER FATIGUE <p>The objective of this paper is to investigate the contribution/role of the crack closure and the fibre bridging effects<br>in stress-ratio influence in mode I delamination growth in carbon/epoxy composite laminates. The crack closure effect<br>has been assessed by the identification of the non-linearity in the compliance curve of the double cantilever test<br>specimen after the delamination extension. The effect of fibre bridging was investigated by cutting the bridging fibres<br>during fatigue delamination. The fatigue test data was process using fracture mechanics principles. The delamination<br>growth rate in laminates was characterized using approach of strain energy release rate. The results of the experiments<br>of fatigue delamination growth with bridging fibres and un-bridged fibres have been compared for different<br>fatigue stress-ratios. The results show that crack closure only occurs at lower stress ratios. Fibre bridging does not<br>affect the stress ratio however the crack rate was decreased in this case.</p> Sakhi Jan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LEAD FREE SOLDER ALLOY FOR GREEN ELECTRONICS UNDER HIGH STRAIN RATE AND THERMAL AGING <p>Lead free solder (LFS) alloys have been widely acknowledged due to its good mechanical properties and no<br>harmful effect on environment. The current work is focused on the examination of thermal aging and strain rates<br>on mechanical properties of Sn96.5-Ag3.0-Cu0.5 (SAC305) LFS alloy. The selected thermal aging temperatures are 60<br>°C, 100 °C and 140 °C. Strain rates are measured at 10/s, 20/s, 30/s and 40/s. The microstructure examination<br>before and after thermal aging is carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) followed by confirmation<br>of chemical composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The microstructure is further analyzed using ImageJ<br>to investigate the Intermetallic compounds (IMCs) particle average size at different aging temperature. Mechanical<br>properties including Yield strength (YS) and Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) are examined before and after thermal<br>aging and at different high strain rates from stress-strain curves using universal testing machine (UTM). Results show<br>that LFS alloys are extremely sensitive to changes in both temperature and strain rate. The microstructure becomes<br>coarsen after thermal aging due to growth of average IMCs particle size which significantly results in reduction in<br>YS and UTS. Furthermore, increasing strain rates results in increasing YS and UTS due to less creep deformation.<br>Mathematical relations are also developed to predict these properties at various levels of aging temperature and strain<br>rate. A power law relationship exists between strain rate and mechanical properties while a reciprocal relationship<br>is obtained between aging temperature and mechanical properties.</p> Muhammad Amir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 GRADIENT ASCENT INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS ALGORITHM FOR TELECOMMUNICATION SIGNALS <p>Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm is normallused for un-mixing and feature extraction of the fixed<br>input block lengths. In case of varying block lengths re-adjustment of the maximum number of iterations and the<br>step size parameter is required. In this paper, we introduced an Adaptive Step size Gradient Ascent ICA (AS-GAICA)<br>technique for varying block length that can also controls the maximum number of iterations adaptively. The performance<br>of the proposed technique is compared with Fast-ICA and Optimum Block Adaptation ICA (OBAICA) for<br>telecommunication signals. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the Fast-ICA and OBAICA<br>algorithms.</p> Muhammad Altaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH FOR CMS DESIGN <p>Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS) have been widely considered as the most efficient manufacturing systems<br>in the case of medium variety and medium volume of production. The main advantage of CMS lies in the effective<br>grouping of parts into families and machines in to corresponding groups as it results in minimizing the number of<br>intercellular moves. Over the years, a number of efficient approaches have been developed by researchers to handle<br>the Cell Formation Problem (CFP). Among these, a large number of approaches consist of Artificial Intelligence<br>(AI) based techniques. The main advantage of such approaches is their ability to handle the CFP effectively both in<br>terms of accuracy and computational effort. Following the same trend an evolutionary algorithm has been developed<br>during this research by combining Standard Genetic Algorithm with a very effective Local Search Heuristic (LSH).<br>The results show that it is efficient both in terms accuracy and speed of convergence (CPU time).</p> Waqas Javaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROP WATER REQUIREMENT UNDER MULTI - REPRESENTATIVE CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS DURING MID-CENTURY: A CASE STUDY OF D. I. KHAN <p>Climate change is a major problem which directly affects agricultural economy of a region as the crop water<br>requirements of major crops is increased. This study was conducted to estimate evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop<br>water requirements (CWR) of wheat and maize crops of the study area during mid (2040-2059) century under emission<br>scenarios based on Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The methodology employed here involves<br>the comparison of temperature and precipitation data projected by different GCM with the observed data. The delta<br>change and ratio method was used to obtain the corrected value of temperature and Precipitation (PPT) for the<br>future. The ETo calculator of Food and Agriculture Organization was used to calculate evapotranspiration. The CWR<br>of wheat and maize crops was computed using CROPWAT 8.0. Results showed that out of sixteen GCMs, only four<br>models i.e., bcc_csm1_1_m, gfdl_cm3, miroc5 and noresm1_m, were considered suitable for simulating the present<br>day climate for the study area. The Ensemble average of these four selected models showed an increase in mean<br>temperature of 2.07 oC and 2.47 oC, and an increase in PPT of 8% and 10% under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively.<br>Similarly, ETo showed an increase of 17% and 21% under both scenarios. Ensemble seasonal CWR of wheat crop<br>under RCP 4.5 is projected to be increased by 10%, while under RCP 8.5 it increased by 8%. The CWR of maize<br>crop is projected to increase by 10% and 15% under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively.</p> Muhammad Shahzad Khattak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 A DISTRIBUTED GENETIC ALGORITM AND A-PRIORI ALGORITHM FOR THE HUB AND FACILITY LOCATION PROBLEMS <p>A-priori is an influential data mining algorithm employed in market basket analysis to understand the purchase<br>behavior of buyers. It has many other applications. In this study, we combine a-priori with a genetic algorithm (GA)<br>to solve two classical NP-hard location problems namely the Un-capacitated Single Allocation Problem (USAHLP)<br>and Un-capacitated Facility Location Problem (UFLP). A distributed model of the proposed algorithm has been<br>implemented. The performance of the algorithm has been evaluated with standard benchmark problems for USAHLP<br>and UFLP. Results have been found encouraging.</p> Nasir Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 A TWO-WAREHOUSE SUPPLY CHAIN NETWORK DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION WITH CROSS-ROUTE COSTS AND BUDGET, MAXIMUM FLOW AND CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS <p>Supply chain optimization techniques for modelling the behavior of manufacturing supply chains have been used<br>for long in order to allow better planning, minimize total cost and improve efficiency. In this paper, a systematic<br>approach is presented for the facility placement, optimal production planning and product transportation across<br>network arcs. An optimization formulation is developed for the determination of production size, locations of network<br>nodes and optimal supply chain. The objective function considered the minimization of transportation cost, production<br>cost and the operational costs for the facilities. The incorporation of budget constraint, delivery mode, cross-route<br>costs, maximum flow by a shipping firm, production capacity of the plants, stocking capacity of owned and rented<br>warehouses and traffic factors on the supply routes in the mathematical model further broadened the problem. A case<br>study is solved to analyze how the model performs with the changing network characteristics.</p> Raza Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 PTFE THIN FILM COATING ON 316L STAINLESS STEEL FOR CORROSION PROTECTION IN ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT <p>Stainless steels (SS) are the most common materials used in various engineering applications because of their<br>fine mechanical and excellent corrosion resistance properties in different mediums. 316L SS shows poor corrosion<br>behavior in HCL. Hard coating is often required for protection of 316L SS from wear and corrosion. In this research<br>paper polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated on 316L SS by spin coating technique to modify their corrosion<br>resistance in acidic media containing Hydrochloric acid (HCL). The anticorrosion property of the 316L SS and PTFE<br>coating was studied in 40% HCL by electrochemical corrosion test and potentiodynamic polarization curves at room<br>temperature and compared. The morphology of uncoated and coated substrates were examined by scanning electron<br>microscopy (SEM) while the compositional analysis performed through energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX).<br>The morphology of the coated and uncoated substrates were also studied before and after electrochemical corrosion<br>test and then compared. The thickness of the coating was also examined well. The result shows the remarkable<br>improvement in the corrosion resistance of PTFE coating by decreasing the corrosion current density in HCL media</p> Nabeel Maqsood ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 SOLUTION TO BERMAN’S MODEL OF VISCOUS FLOW IN POROUS CHANNEL BY OPTIMAL HOMOTOPY ASYMPTOTIC METHOD <p>Berman developed the fourth-order nonlinear differential equation with initial and boundary conditions. This model<br>is based on two-dimensional, steady, incompressible viscous fluids that flow through the permeable channel with wall<br>suction/Injection. The solution of this model is semi-analytically computed by optimal Homotopy asymptotic technique<br>(OHAM). Reynolds number is based on Suction or injection through the wall, so for different values of Reynolds, we<br>obtained different types of semi-analytic solutions by OHAM.</p> Murad Ullah Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500 IDENTIFICATION OF SITES FOR ESTABLISHING PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR FARMS IN PAKISTAN USING SOLAR GEOMETRY <p>Utility scale Solar farms generally consist of multiple arrays of Photovoltaic (PV) Panels which collect and convert<br>solar energy into electrical energy. Pakistan is facing a serious energy crisis. It is working on solar energy options.<br>Therefore, it is imperative to identify most viable sites that have a high solar radiation. We utilized solar geometry<br>and the Google Earth, a geographical information program to identify optimal sites for Pakistan. These sites should<br>also include basic requirements for a PV plant such as availability of local grid, barren land, roads, water, and good<br>climatic conditions. The Average solar intensity (I) was calculated by using solar geometry on a daily basis, which<br>served as the basis for annual projections. It has been found that the best location for building a solar farm is district<br>QilaSaifullah (I = 9.79 kWh/m2/day) in Baluchistan province. In the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, district Nowshera<br>(I= 8.06 kWh/m2/day), in Sindh province, district Sukkur (I = 7.9 kWh/m2/day) and in Punjab, district Bahawalpur (I<br>= 8.17 kWh/m2/day) have been found most suitable. This study shows that Pakistan has a good potential to install<br>solar parks in all the provinces and provides a potential solution to address the energy crisis in Pakistan.</p> Khizar Azam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 -0500