Hydrodynamic Design of Tidal Current Turbine and the Effect of Solidity on Performance
Blade element momentum (BEM) flow model in conjunction with pattern search optimization algorithm embedded in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tool HARP_Opt was used to design a horizontal axis tidal current turbine (HATCT). The numerical method was validated with the experimental data and a good agreement was achieved. The designed turbine has a 3 bladed rotor of 4 meters diameter and rated mechanical power of 20 kW. Performance metrics of the rotor for steady and uniform flow was simulated at flow speeds from 0.5-3.5 m/s. The turbine achieved its rated power at a tip speed ratio (TSR) 5.7 with a peak CP value of 0.47 and peak thrust of 16.7 kN-m. Additionally, a series of simulations were performed at TSR from 1-10 to obtain performance curve for the turbine at a design current velocity of 1.5 m/s. Effect of solidity on performance was quantified by varying the number of turbine blades. The value of CP increased by 1.5% with increasing the number of blades from 2 to 3. The value of CP further increased by only 0.2% with increase in number of blades from 3 to 4. The value of turbine thrust was minimally effected by increase in the number of blades. However, the value of thrust per blade increased with a reduction in number of blades. The increase in flap moment and thrust per blade with reduction in number of blades could have serious consequences for the structural integrity of the turbine.
2. Laws, N.D. and B.P. Epps, (2016), "Hydrokinetic energy conversion: Technology, research, and outlook", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 57, pp.1245-1259.
3. Pelc, R. and R.M. Fujita, (2002), "Renewable energy from the ocean", Marine Policy 26(6), pp.471-479.
4. Khan, N., (2010), "Marine resources in Pakistan: A tentative inventory", National Institute of Oceanography, Karachi.
5. Magagna, D. and A. Uihlein, (2015), "2014 JRC Ocean Energy Status Report", European Commission Joint Research Centre.
6. Neill, S.P., A. Vögler, A.J. Goward-Brown, S. Baston, M.J. Lewis, P.A. Gillibrand, S. Waldman and D.K. Woolf, (2017), "The wave and tidal resource of Scotland", Renewable energy.
7. Bryden, I., T. Grinsted and G. Melville, (2004), "Assessing the potential of a simple tidal channel to deliver useful energy", Applied Ocean Research 26(5), pp.198-204.
8. Couch, S.J. and I.G. Bryden, (2004), "The impact of energy extraction on tidal flow development", In the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Marine Renewable Energy, Blyth.
9. Garrett, C. and P. Cummins, (2005), "The power potential of tidal currents in channels", In the proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 461. The Royal Society, p. 2563-2572.
10. Batten, W., A. Bahaj, A. Molland and J. Chaplin, (2006), "Hydrodynamics of marine current turbines", Renewable energy 31(2), pp.249-256.
11. Bir, G.S., M.J. Lawson and Y. Li, (2011), "Structural Design of a Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine Composite Blade", In the proceedings of the ASME 2011 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, p. 797-808.
12. Batten, W., A. Bahaj, A. Molland and J. Chaplin, (2007), "Experimentally validated numerical method for the hydrodynamic design of horizontal axis tidal turbines", Ocean engineering 34(7), pp.1013-1020.
13. Batten, W., A. Bahaj, A. Molland and J. Chaplin, (2008), "The prediction of the hydrodynamic performance of marine current turbines", Renewable energy 33(5), pp.1085-1096.
14. O'Rourke, F., F. Boyle, A. Reynolds and D.M. Kennedy, (2015), "Hydrodynamic performance prediction of a tidal current turbine operating in non-uniform inflow conditions", Energy 93, pp.2483-2496.
15. Hee Jo, C., J. young Yim, K. hee Lee and Y. ho Rho, (2012), "Performance of horizontal axis tidal current turbine by blade configuration", Renewable energy 42, pp.195-206.
16. Lawson, M.J., Y. Li and D. Sale, (2011), "Development and verification of a computational fluid dynamics model of a horizontal-axis tidal current turbine", In the proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
17. Li, L.j., J.h. Zheng, Y.x. Peng, J.s. Zhang and X.g. Wu, (2015), "Numerical investigation of flow motion and performance of a horizontal axis tidal turbine subjected to a steady current", China Ocean Engineering 29(2), pp.209-222.
18. Ma, Y., L. Zhang, Z.y. Zhang and D.f. Han, (2016), "Optimization of blade motion of vertical axis turbine", China Ocean Engineering 30(2), pp.297-308.
19. Tian, W., J.H. VanZwieten, P. Pyakurel and Y. Li, (2016), "Influences of yaw angle and turbulence intensity on the performance of a 20 kW in-stream hydrokinetic turbine", Energy 111, pp.104-116.
20. Zhang, X.-w., L. Zhang, F. Wang, D.-y. Zhao and C.-y. Pang, (2014), "Research on the unsteady hydrodynamic characteristics of vertical axis tidal turbine", China Ocean Engineering 28(1), pp.95-103.
21. Hill, C., V.S. Neary, B. Gunawan, M. Guala and F. Sotiropoulos, (2014), "US Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results", St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, College of Science & Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
22. O’Doherty, T., A. Mason-Jones, D. O’Doherty, C. Byrne, I. Owen and Y. Wang, (2009), "Experimental and computational analysis of a model horizontal axis tidal turbine", In the proceedings of the 8th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC), Uppsala, Sweden.
23. Jing, F.-m., W.-j. Ma, L. Zhang, S.-q. Wang and X.-h. Wang, (2017), "Experimental study of hydrodynamic performance of full-scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine", Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser. B 29(1), pp.109-117.
24. Liu, H.w., H.b. Zhou, Y.g. Lin, W. Li and H.g. Gu, (2016), "Design and test of 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine", China Ocean Engineering 30(3), pp.407-420.
25. Schubel, P.J. and R.J. Crossley, (2012), "Wind turbine blade design", Energies 5(9), pp.3425-3449.
26. Vennell, R., (2013), "Exceeding the Betz limit with tidal turbines", Renewable energy 55, pp.277-285.
27. Goundar, J.N. and M.R. Ahmed, (2013), "Design of a horizontal axis tidal current turbine", Applied energy 111, pp.161-174.
28. Singh, P.M. and Y.-D. Choi, (2014), "Shape design and numerical analysis on a 1 MW tidal current turbine for the south-western coast of Korea", Renewable energy 68, pp.485-493.
29. McCosker, J., (2012), "Design and optimization of a small wind turbine", M.S. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
30. Jo, C., S. Hwang, J. Lee and K. Lee, (2013), "Design Procedure and Performance Estimation of Tidal Current Power System", In the proceedings of the 7th International Conference on APAC2013 (Asian and Pacific Coasts). p. 873-876.
31. Vermaak, H.J., K. Kusakana and S.P. Koko, (2014), "Status of micro-hydrokinetic river technology in rural applications: A review of literature", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29, pp.625-633.
32. Nasir Mehmood, Z.L. and J. Khan, (2012), "Diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines", Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 4(18), pp.3522-3532.
33. Matousek, R., (2012), "Engineering design: a systematic approach", Springer Science & Business Media.
34. Kempener, R. and F. Neumann, (2014), "Tidal energy technology brief", International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
35. Morris, C., (2014), "Influence of solidity on the performance, swirl characteristics, wake recovery and blade deflection of a horizontal axis tidal turbine", PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.