Analysis of human perceptions and adaptations to flash floods in Khyber Agency, FATA

  • Behram Khan University of Peshawar
Keywords: Human perception, Flood damages, Adaptation to floods, Nature of affinity


The present study aims to analyse the human perceptions and adaptations to recurrent devastating flash floods in Khyber Agency, FATA. The study is mainly based on both primary data sources including field observations, structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussions supported by secondary data sources. Three hundred adult residents in five sample villages along Chora River and its tributaries were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire which covered approximately 20% of the total households. Respondents’ perceptions were investigated about the occurrence of flash floods, flood damages, nature of affinity towards flood prone areas and adaptation strategies. Cartographic and statistical techniques were applied to process and analyze the data. As a result, the data were analytically discussed and presented in the form of tables, maps and plates. The analysis reveals that people of the area perceived about the recurrence of future flash floods during rainy season. Most of the people perceived the flash floods as it hit the study area with devastating impacts and the extent of flood damages. In spite of flood risk, the level of affinity towards living in the flood prone area was found high among the community as they have blood ties with the land, kith and kinship. In the study area, people had adopted various flood mitigation strategies to reduce the devastating impacts of flash floods. However, the resident had greater motivations and concern on socio-economic factors rather than adjustments to frequent flash flood.


Ahmad, F., Kazmi, S. F., & Pervez, T. (2011). Human Response to Hydro-Meteorological Disasters: A Case Study of the 2010 Flash Floods in Pakistan. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 4(9), 518-524.
Bonacci, O., Ljubenkov , I., & Bonacci, R. T. (2006). Karst Flash Floods: An Example from the Dinaric Karst (Croatia). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 6(2), 195-203.
Burton, I., Kates, R. W., & White, G. F. (1968). The Human Ecology of Extreme Geophysical Events. Department of Geography. University of Toronto, Canada.
CRED. (2016). World Disasters Report. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
Dani, A. H. (1995). Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier. Sang-E-Meel Publication.
Foster, R. J. (1983). Physical Geology 4th Ed. Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company A Bell & Howell Company Columbus, Ohio, USA.
GoP. (2007). National Disaster Management Framework. National Disaster Management Authority, Islamabad, Gvernment of Pakistan.
Goswami, A.K. (1979). Studies on the Nature of Floods in the Depressed Belt of Southern West Bengal. Geographical Review of India, 41, 194.
Hart, D. M. (1985). Guardians of the Khaibar Pass: The Social Organisation and History of the Afridis of Pakistan. Vanguard Books.
Husnain, A., Bukhari, J. I., & Siddiqui, Q. T. (2011). Flash Flood Risk Assessment in Pakistan. 71st Pakistan Engineering Congress Annual Session (pp. 697-708). Lahore: Pakistan Engineering Council.
Islam, M. A. (1980). Agricultural Adjustment to Flooding in Bangladesh. A Preliminary Report. National Geographical Journal of India, 26(1&2), 50-59.
Khan, A. N., & Haq, F. (2010). Causes and Damages of Flash Floods: A Case Study of Kunaai Khwar District Dir Lower. In A. N. Khan (Ed.), Proceeding of the Second International Disaster Management Conference (IDMC-2010): Good Governance in Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation (pp. 255-268). Peshawar: Center for Disaster Preparedness & Management, University of Peshawar- Pakistan.
Khan, B. (2007). Flood Hazard, M.Phil. Diss., Department of Geography, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Kurosaki, T., Khan, H., Shah, M. K., & Tahir, M. (2012). Household-Level Recovery after Floods in a Developing Country: Further Evidence from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, Japan.
Pathak, M. (1991). Flood Plains and Agricultural Occupance. Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi, India.
Rahman, A., & Khan, A. N. (2012). Flood Causes, Magnitude & Impacts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa- Pakistan. Natural Hazards, 01(02), 169-183.
Rahman, A., & Shaw, R. (2015). Flood Risk and Reduction Approaches in Pakistan. In A. Rahman, A. N. Khan, & R. Shaw (Eds.), Dissater Risk Reduction Approaches in Pakistan (pp. 77-100). Kyoto, Japan: Springer.
Spain, J. W. (1985). The Pathan Borderland. Indus Publications, Karachi- Pakistan.
How to Cite
Khan, B. (2019, June 29). Analysis of human perceptions and adaptations to flash floods in Khyber Agency, FATA. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES, 38(1).