Temporal Variations in Ground Water Quality Due to Urbanisation in Peshawar District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Case Study

Temporal Variations in Ground Water Quality Due to Urbanisation in Peshawar District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Case Study

  • Mujahid Khan University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6064-5439
  • Mahmood Alam Khan Assistant Professor, AED, UET Peshawar
  • Muhammad Yaseen Post Graduate student UET Peshawar
  • Amjad Khan Post Graduate student UET Peshawar
Keywords: Groundwater, Water Quality, Urbanization, Contour maps, GIS, Chemical, Physical


Groundwater is a significant source of water for both domestic and agricultural use. The main objective of this study was to identify temporal variations in groundwater quality of Peshawar by developing GIS based physio-chemical parameters contour maps, comparative graphs and analyse results in light of Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority (PSQCA). In 2004, same study for district Peshawar was carried out jointly by PCSIR Peshawar and Kyungpook National University. In order to assess the effects of urbanization on ground water quality in district Peshawar, another study was undertaken in 2014-15 by collecting samples from the same locations. Standard procedures were adopted to determine the selected parameters and results of both the studies were compared. Comparative analysis of both the studies showed that some of the chemical parameters values gained an increase while other got decreased. Results also showed that electrical conductivity (EC), Cl-, SO4-2, NO3-1 were increased by 119.11%, 29.98%, 469.60%, and 59.47% respectively, while total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium (Ca++), HCO3-1 and Magnesium (Mg++) were decreased by 6%, 10.51%, 37.39% and 11.52%, 22.21%, 37.56% and 21.19% respectively. Results revealed that changes in water quality have occurred due to over population of Peshawar and remedial measures are needed in future.

Author Biography

Mujahid Khan, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Civil Engineering Deaprtment


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How to Cite
Khan, M., Khan, M., Yaseen, M., & Khan, A. (2018, December 31). Temporal Variations in Ground Water Quality Due to Urbanisation in Peshawar District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Case Study. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES, 37(2). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25211/jeas.v37i2.2908