An investigation of heavy and trace elements in coal deposits of Makarwal Pakistan and their possible impacts on surrounding water-case study

  • Amir Naveed Department of Chemical Engineering, UET Peshawar
  • Unsia Habib Department of Chemical Engineering, UET Peshawar
  • Fouzia Parveen National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar
  • Syed Naveed ul Hasan Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Muddasar Habib Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Irfan Shah Department of Chemical Engineering, UET Peshawar
Keywords: Water contamination, environmental issues, heavy metals and coal energy.

Abstract

In this research, coal samples from different locations of Makarwal (Pakistan) were investigated for the presence of heavy and trace metals. The coal samples used under study were: Makarwal section-A (Mk-A), Makarwal section-B (Mk-B), Kurd section C (Kr-c), Makarwal section D (Mk-D) and Gula-khel section E (Gk-E). It was observed that, these coalfields contain arsenic (As) ranging from 3.0–16.34mg/kg, cadmium (Cd) 2.23–4.61 mg/kg, Co 22.1–29.3 mg/kg, Cr 113.1–288.2 mg/kg, Cu 8.53–23.2 mg/kg, Fe 1133–10813 mg/kg, Ni 44.35–148.8 mg/kg, Pb 18.49–46.25 mg/kg and Zn 25–242 mg/kg. Moreover, the Mk-D coal samples had the highest concentration of As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni. However, the coal samples from Mk-C had higher contents of Cu and Pb. Whereas, Fe was abundant in Mk-B coal samples. These results can be used as a helping tool for the prediction of environmental risks associated with coal mining in Makarwal area. Further, the water samples of Makarwal area were also analyzed and found to be contaminated with heavy metal pollutants.

Author Biographies

Syed Naveed ul Hasan, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Muddasar Habib, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.

References

Danilchik, W. & Shah, S.M.I. 1987. Stratigraphy and coal resources of the Makarwal area,
Trans-Indus Mountains, Mianwali District, Pakistan. USGS 38:1341.
Davidson, R.M. 1994. "Nitrogen in Coal", IEA Coal Perspectives. 8:896–906
Finkelman RB, Orem W, Castranova V, Tatu CA, Beklin HE, Zheng BS, et al. 2002. Health
impacts of coal and coal use, possible solutions. Int. J. Coal Geol. 50:425–443.
Finkelman, R.B. 1988. “Inorganic geochemistry of coal: a scanning electron microscopy view.”
Scanning micros. 2:97-105.
Finkelman, R.B., and Brown, R.D. 1991, Coal as a host and as an indicator of mineral resources,
in Peters, C.C., ed., Geology in coal resource utilization: Fairfax, Va., Tech Books, 5:471–481.
Finklman, R.B. 1993. Trace and minor elements in coal. Org.geochem, New York, 11:593-607.
Gluskoter, H.J. 1973. “Mineral Matter and trace elements in coal” Advn; chem; series; division
of fuel Chemistry, 18:232-238,
Johnson, C.A., and Bretzler,A. 2015. Addressing arsenic and fluoride in drinking water. A
Geogenic contamination Hand book. Swiss fedral institute of aquatic science and technology (Eawag), switzerland.
Krishna De, A. 1996. Trace Elements in Health and Diseases. Books for All. 93p
Rahmani, R. A. and Flores, R. M. 1985. Sedimentology of Coal and Coal-Bearing Sequences
of North America. A Historical Review, in Sedimentology of Coal and Coal-Bearing Sequences, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
Rajappa.B.,Manjappa.S, Puttaiah.E.T. 2010. Monitoring of Heavy Metal Concentration in
Groundwater of Hakinaka Taluk, India. ContemEng, Sci, 3:183–190
Siddiqui, I. 2008. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Thar, Sonda and Meting-Jhimpir
coalfields of Sindh. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Peshawar
Swaine, D. J. 1990. Trace Elements in Coal. Butterworths. & Co. London.278p.
USEPA, 2004. Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories, Office of drinking water, US
Environmental Protection Agency,Washington D.C. 4:1-20
Van Oostdam, J. 1999. Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic
Canada. Sci Total Environ, 230:1–82.
Wang, M., Zheng.B., Wang B., Li, S., wu., D., Hu., J. 2005. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese
coals. Sci Total Environ; 357:96– 102.
Warwick, P.D., Javaid, S., Tahir, S.A., Shakoor, T., Khan, M.A., Khan A.L. 1995. Lithofacies
and palyno stratigraphy of some Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks, Surghar and Salt Range
coal fields, northern Pakistan USGS 2096.
Warwick, P.D., Shakoor, Tariq, Javed, Shahid, Mashhadi, S.T.A., and Ghaznavi, M.I. 1990.
Chemical and physical characteristics of coal and carbonaceous shale samples from the Salt Range coal field, Punjab Province, Pakistan: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 44:90–524.
White, D.M., Edwards, L.O., and Du Bose, D.A. 1989. “Trace elements in Texas lignite”,
Rep. Tenrac/EDF-094, 97 pp.
WHO, 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, third edition incorporating the first and
second addenda, Recommendations Geneva.1:180-362.
Published
2019-06-25
How to Cite
Naveed, A., Habib, U., Parveen, F., Hasan, S., Habib, M., & Shah, I. (2019, June 25). An investigation of heavy and trace elements in coal deposits of Makarwal Pakistan and their possible impacts on surrounding water-case study. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES, 38(1). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25211/jeas.v38i1.2949