An investigation of heavy and trace elements in coal deposits of Makarwal Pakistan and their possible impacts on surrounding water-case study
In this research, coal samples from different locations of Makarwal (Pakistan) were investigated for the presence of heavy and trace metals. The coal samples used under study were: Makarwal section-A (Mk-A), Makarwal section-B (Mk-B), Kurd section C (Kr-c), Makarwal section D (Mk-D) and Gula-khel section E (Gk-E). It was observed that, these coalfields contain arsenic (As) ranging from 3.0–16.34mg/kg, cadmium (Cd) 2.23–4.61 mg/kg, Co 22.1–29.3 mg/kg, Cr 113.1–288.2 mg/kg, Cu 8.53–23.2 mg/kg, Fe 1133–10813 mg/kg, Ni 44.35–148.8 mg/kg, Pb 18.49–46.25 mg/kg and Zn 25–242 mg/kg. Moreover, the Mk-D coal samples had the highest concentration of As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni. However, the coal samples from Mk-C had higher contents of Cu and Pb. Whereas, Fe was abundant in Mk-B coal samples. These results can be used as a helping tool for the prediction of environmental risks associated with coal mining in Makarwal area. Further, the water samples of Makarwal area were also analyzed and found to be contaminated with heavy metal pollutants.
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