Mitigating CO2 Emissions of Academic Buildings in Pakistan Using Energy Conservation Techniques

  • Shakil Rehman Sheikh Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Zafar Ullah Koreshi Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Nouman Ghafoor Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Shahid Khalil University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan
  • Muzzamil Ghaffar Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Keywords: Building energy simulation, built environment, carbon emissions, energy conservation


Energy use data of the sample school was gathered from available records as well as measured using an in-house developed metering device that recorded the electric consumption data on hourly bases. Building energy simulations were also carried out using TRNSYS© software for validating and comparing the actual energy consumed and optimal energy consumption resulting from building energy simulation of the existing and re-designed building. The results highlighted that if the building had been designed with proper considerations for energy efficiency, up to 30% of energy could have been saved. The measurements and analysis indicated that other measures like the use of different types of window glazing, LED Lighting, efficient gas heating, and improvement in behavior pattern could also result in substantial energy savings. The maximum achievable savings can be as much as 50% of the energy cost of the school buildings. Additionally, once extrapolated over the entire school-going population of Pakistan the CO2 emission savings come out to be substantial, amounting to 3.07 M tonnes annually.

Author Biographies

Shakil Rehman Sheikh, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Assistant Professor

Department of Mechatronics 

Air University 

Islamabad, Pakistan

Zafar Ullah Koreshi, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan


Air University 

Islamabad, Pakistan

Nouman Ghafoor, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Research Associate

Air University 

Islamabad, Pakistan

Muhammad Shahid Khalil, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan


Faculty of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering

UET Taxila

Muzzamil Ghaffar, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Research Assistant

Air University 

Islamabad, Pakistan


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How to Cite
Sheikh, S. R., Koreshi, Z. U., Ghafoor, N., Khalil, M. S., & Ghaffar, M. (2019, December 31). Mitigating CO2 Emissions of Academic Buildings in Pakistan Using Energy Conservation Techniques. JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES, 38(2).