Mitigating CO2 Emissions of Academic Buildings in Pakistan Using Energy Conservation Techniques
Energy use data of the sample school was gathered from available records as well as measured using an in-house developed metering device that recorded the electric consumption data on hourly bases. Building energy simulations were also carried out using TRNSYS© software for validating and comparing the actual energy consumed and optimal energy consumption resulting from building energy simulation of the existing and re-designed building. The results highlighted that if the building had been designed with proper considerations for energy efficiency, up to 30% of energy could have been saved. The measurements and analysis indicated that other measures like the use of different types of window glazing, LED Lighting, efficient gas heating, and improvement in behavior pattern could also result in substantial energy savings. The maximum achievable savings can be as much as 50% of the energy cost of the school buildings. Additionally, once extrapolated over the entire school-going population of Pakistan the CO2 emission savings come out to be substantial, amounting to 3.07 M tonnes annually.
2. Shah, D., Amin, N., Muhammad, K. B., Farooq, Piracha, Z., & Adeel, M., (2018), “Pakistan Education Statistics 2016 -17”. National Education Management Information System (NEMIS), Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) with technical and financial support from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Pakistan.
3. Crosby, K., & Metzger, A.B., (2013). “Powering Down: A Toolkit for Behavior-Based Energy Conservation in K-12 Academic institutions”, U.S. Green Building Council, Inc. Washington, D.C., United States.
4. Abas, N., Kalair, A., Khanb, N., & Kalair A.R., (2017), “Review of GHG emissions in Pakistan compared to SAARC countries”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, pp.990–1016.
5. Pérez-Lombard, L., Ortiz, J., & Pout, C. (2008), “A review on buildings energy consumption information”. Energy and Buildings. Vol. 40, Issue 3, pp.394–398. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.03.007.
6. Kneifel, J., (2010), “Life-cycle carbon and cost analysis of energy efficiency measures in new commercial buildings”. Energy and Buildings. Vol. 42, Issue 3, pp.333-340.
7. Ma, Z., Cooper, P., Daly, D., & Ledo, L., (2012), “Existing building retrofits: Methodology and state-of-the-art”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 55, pp. 889-902.
8. Guo, H., Liu, Y., Chang, WS., Shao, Y., & Sun, C., (2017), “Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction in the Operation Stage of Cross Laminated Timber Residential Buildings in China”. Sustainability. Vol. 9, Issue 2, pp.292.
9. Chang, K., & Chang, K., (2016), “Cutting CO2 intensity targets of interprovincial emissions trading in China”. Applied Energy, Vol. 163, pp.211-221.
10. Berardi, U., (2017), “A cross-country comparison of the building energy consumptions and their trends; Resources”, Conservation and Recycling. Vol. 123, pp.230-241.
11. Cong, X., Zhao, M., & Li, L., (2015), “Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Buildings in Different Regions of China Based on STIRPAT Model”. Procedia Engineering. Vol. 121, pp.645-652.
12. Zhang, Y.P. (2012). “Energy Conservation Strategy Research for Residential Building Refurbishment in Urban area of China”, PhD Thesis, Politecnico di Torino. Italy.
13. Olivier, JGJ., Schure, KM., & Peters, JAHW., (2017), “Trends in global CO2 and total Greenhouse Gas Emissions”. Report PBL, The Hague.
14. Amaxilatis, D., Akrivopoulos, O., Mylonas, G., & Chatzigiannakis, I., (2017), “An IoT-Based Solution for Monitoring a Fleet of Educational Buildings Focusing on Energy Efficiency”, Sensors (Basel, Switzerland); Vol. 17, pp. Issue 10, pp.2296.
15. Bull, J., Gupta, A., Mumovic, D., & Kimpian, J., (2014), “Life cycle cost and carbon footprint of energy efficient refurbishments to 20th century UK school buildings”, International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Vol. 3, Issue 1, pp.1-17.
16. Airaksinen, M., (2011), “Energy Use in Day Care Centers and Schools”, Energies. Vol. 4, pp.998-1009.
17. Hong, T., Kim, HJ., & Kwak, T., (2012), “Energy-Saving Techniques for Reducing C02 Emissions in Elementary Schools”, Journal of Management in Engineering, Vol. 28, pp.39-50. http://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000073.
18. Filippı́n, C., (2000), “Benchmarking the energy efficiency and greenhouse gases emissions of school buildings in central Argentina”, Building and Environment, Vol. 35, Issue 5, 1, pp.407-414.
19. Chidiac, S.E., Catania, E.J.C., Morofsky, E., & Foo, S., (2011), “Effectiveness of single and multiple energy retrofit measures on the energy consumption of office buildings”, Energy. Vol. 36, Issue 8, pp.5037-5052.
20. Allab, Y., Pellegrino, M., Guo, X., Nefzaoui, E., & Kindinis, A., (2017), “Energy and comfort assessment in educational building: Case study in a French university campus”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 143, pp.202-219.
21. Jindal, A., (2018), “Thermal comfort study in naturally ventilated school classrooms in composite climate of India”. Building and Environment. Vol. 142, pp.34-46.
22. Yun, H., Nam, I., Kim, J., Yang, J., Lee, K., & Sohn, J., (2014), “A field study of thermal comfort for kindergarten children in Korea: an assessment of existing models and preferences of children”. Building and Environment. Vol. 75, pp.182-189.
23. Liang, H.H., Lin, T.P., & Wang, R.L., “Linking occupants' thermal perception and building thermal performance in naturally ventilated school buildings”. Applied Energy, (2012). Vol. 94, pp.355-363.
24. Mishra, A.K. & Ramgopal, M., (2013), “Field studies on human thermal comfort - an overview”, Building and Environment. Vol. 64, pp.94-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.02.015.
25. Hwang, R.L., Lin, T.P., & Kuo, N.J., (2006), “Field experiments on thermal comfort in school classrooms in Taiwan”, Building and Environment. Vol. 38, Issue 1, pp.53-62.
26. Teli, D., Jentsch, M.F., & James, P.A.B., (2012), “Naturally ventilated classrooms: an assessment of existing comfort models for predicting the thermal sensation and preference of primary school children”. Energy and Buildings. Vol. 53, pp.166-182.
27. Kumar, S., Singh, M.K., Loftness, V., Mathur, J., & Mathur, S., (2016), “Thermal comfort assessment and characteristics of occupant's behaviour in naturally ventilated buildings in composite climate of India”, Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 33, pp.108-121.
28. Manu, S., Shukla, Y., Rawal, R., Thomas, L.E., & Dear, R.de, (2016), “Field studies of thermal comfort across multiple climate zones for the subcontinent: India Model for Adaptive Comfort (IMAC)”, Building and Environment. Vol. 98, pp.55-70.
29. Indraganti M., (2010), “Using the adaptive model of thermal comfort for obtaining indoor neutral temperature: findings from a field study in Hyderabad, India”, Building and Environment, Vol. 45, Issue 3, pp.519-536.
30. Lefebvre, D., & Tezel, F.H., (2017), “A review of energy storage technologies with a focus on adsorption thermal energy storage processes for heating applications”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 67, pp.116-125.
31. Gracia, A. de, & Cabeza, L.F., (2015), “Phase change materials and thermal energy storage for buildings”. Energy and Buildings. Vol. 103, pp.414-419.
32. Ndiaye, K., Ginestet, S., & Cyr, M., (2018), “Thermal energy storage based on cementitious materials: A review”, AIMS Energy. Vol. 6, Issue 1, pp.97-120.
33. Heier, J., Bales, C., & Martin, V., (2015), “Combining thermal energy storage with buildings – a review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 42, Issue C, pp.1305-1325.
34. Berardi, U., & Soudian, S., (2018), “Benefits of latent thermal energy storage in the retrofit of Canadian high-rise residential buildings”. Building Simulation, Vol. 11, pp.709.
35. McKenna, P., Turner, W.J.N., & Finn D.P., (2018), “Geo-cooling with integrated PCM thermal energy storage in a commercial building”, Energy, Vol. 144, pp.865-876.
36. Saffari, M., de Gracia, A., Ushak, S., & Cabeza, L.F. (2017), “Passive cooling of buildings with phase change materials using whole-building energy simulation tools: A review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 80, pp.1239–1255.
37. Narain, J., Jin, W., Ghandehar,i M., Wilke, E., Shukla, N., Berardi, U., El-Korchi, T., & Dessel, S. van., (2016), “Design and application of concrete tiles enhanced with microencapsulated phase-change material”, Journal of Architectural Engineering, Vol. 22, Issue 1, 05015003.
38. Li, J., Meng, X., Gao, Y., Mao, W., Luo, T., & Zhang, L., (2018), “Effect of the insulation materials filling on the thermal performance of sintered hollow bricks”, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Vol. 11, pp.62-70.
39. He, Y., Liu, M., Kvan, T., & Peng, S., (2017), “An enthalpy-based energy savings estimation method targeting thermal comfort level in naturally ventilated buildings in hot-humid summer zones”. Applied Energy, Vol. 187, pp.717-731.
40. Aldawoud, A., (2017), “Windows design for maximum cross-ventilation in buildings”. Advances in Building Energy Research. Vol. 11, Issue 1, pp 67-86.
41. Pieri, SP., Santamouris, M., & Tzouvadakis, I., (2017), “Energy signature models of naturally ventilated hotels in Athens: a hotel classification methodology”, International Journal of Ventilation, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp.269-290, https://doi.org/10.1080/14733315.2016.1173288.
42. Chen, Y., Tong, Z., & Malkawi, A., (2017), “Investigating natural ventilation potentials across the globe: Regional and climatic variations”. Building and Environment, Vol. 122, pp.386-396.
43. Varoğlu, E.S., & Altın, M., (2017), “A Method Developed for Determining the Optimum Orientation and the Optimum Shading of School Buildings in Warm Climatic Regions”. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. 13(12):7637-7649.
44. Keplinger, D., (1978). Designing new buildings of optimum shape and orientation. Habitat International. Vol. 3, Issues 5–6, pp.577-585.
45. Hemsath, T.L., (2016), “Housing orientation's effect on energy use in suburban developments”, Energy and Buildings. Vol. 122, pp.98-106.
46. TRNSYS 17, (2014), “A Transient System Simulation Program”, TRNSYS 17 Manual, Volume 1, the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
47. TRNSYS 17, (2005), “Multizone Building modeling with Type56 and TRNBuild”, TRNSYS 17 Manual. Volume 5, the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
48. Memon, S., & Eames, PC., (2017), “Predicting the solar energy and space-heating energy performance for solid-wall detached house retrofitted with the composite edge-sealed triple vacuum glazing”. Energy Procedia, Vol. 122, pp.565-570.
49. Gan CK., Sapar, AF., Mun, YC., & Chong, KE., (2013), “Techno-economic Analysis of LED Lighting: A Case Study in UTeM’s Faculty Building”. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 53, pp.208-216.
50. DOE, (2016), “Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications. Solid-State Lighting Program, Building Technologies Office”. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Washington DC, USA.
51. U.S. EPA, (2011), “Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Academic institutions, A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs”, EPA 430-R-09-034.
52. UNESA, (2017), “World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables”, Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division