• Shafi Ullah National Centre of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
Keywords: Hayatabad, wastewater, coagulation/flocculation, treatment efficiency


This study was conducted on municipal wastewater with an attempt to identify proper treatment measures. The
drain under study was observed for three months. In total 45 samples were collected from five different sites at the
rate of three samples per day (Morning, Afternoon and Evening). Each sample was a composite of three grab samples
collected with four hours intervals. All Samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics. On comparison
with Pak NEQS it was observed that the municipal wastewater physicochemical quality was above the permissible
limits. A series of coagulation/flocculation treatments were given by applying different doses of ferric chloride in
combination of calcium hydroxide. Effective removals of pollutants were obtained by using ferric chloride and calcium
hydroxide in ratio of 2:0.5 mL for settling time of 13 minutes. As treatment results, not only removed suspended
solids (86%) but a tremendous decrease was observed in color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity by
96%, 66% and 89%, respectively.


1. Nawaz, M.S., and Ahsan, M., (2014), “Comparison of
physico-chemical, advanced oxidation and biological
techniques for the textile wastewater treatment”,
Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol.53: pp.717-722.
2. Waliullah, (2007), “Assessment of heavy metals in
municipal wastewater of Peshawar city (Faqirabad)
and its effects on food chain”, Unpublished M.Phil
thesis, Department of Institute of Chemical Sciences,
University of Peshawar.
3. Hussain, A., and Bashir, K.M., (2009), “Environmental
Profile of NWFP”. 2nd Edition. Environmental
Protection Agency, Govt. of NWFP Pakistan,
4. United Nation Development Program (UNDP),
(2006), “Beyond Scarcity, Power, Poverty and the
Global Water Crisis, Cap Town, South Africa”, The
Daily NEWS November 13.
5. Manahan, S.E., (1993), “Fundamental of
Environmental Chemistry”, LEWIS Publishers, pp.
377, 378, 415.
6. Metcalf, and Eddy, (2003), “Wastewater Engineering
Treatment and Reuse”, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill
Edition, New York, USA, pp.10, 456,497.
7. Khurshed, A., and Sidra, K., (2009), “Effect of
Sewage irrigation on Ground water and vegetable
crops”, J. of Sci. Tech. and Development, Pak,
Vol.28 (1), pp.14-19.
8. Kiely, G., (2007), “Environmental Engineering”.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, Special
Indian Edition, pp. 58, 59, 493,498.
9. Zahrim, A.Y., Nasimah, A., and Hilal, N., (2014).
“Pollutants Analysis during Conventional Palm
Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Ponding System and
Decolourisation of Anaerobically treated POME
via Calcium Lactate-Polyacrylamide”, J. of Water
Process Engineering, Vol.4, pp.159-165.
10. Chatterjee, A.K., (2001), “Water supply, waste disposal
and Environmental Engineering”, 7th Edition.
Romesh Chander Khanna for Khanna Publisher,
28, Nath Market, Nai Sarak, Delhi, pp. 201, 249.
11. Marco, G., Mattei, M., Rocca, C.D., Melluso, G.
and Meric, S., (2007), “Optimization of alum-coagulation/
flocculation for COD and TSS removal from
five municipal wastewater”, Desalination, Vol.211:
12. Verma, A.K., Dash, R.R., and Bhunia, P., (2012),
“A review on chemical coagulation/flocculation
technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters”,
Journal of Environmental Management,
Vol.93 (1): pp.154-168.
13. Matilainen, A., Vepsalainen, M. and Sillanpaa, M.,
(2010), “Natural Organic Matter removal by coagulation
during drinking water treatment: a review”.
Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., Vol.159, pp.189-197.
14. Verma, A.K., Dash, R.R. and Bhunia, P., (2012),
“A review on chemical coagulation/flocculation
technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters”,
J. Environ. Manage., Vol.93, pp.154-168.
15. Kimura, M., Matsui, Y., Kondo, K., Ishikawa, T.B.,
Matsushita, T. and Shirasaki, N., (2013), “Minimizing
residual aluminum concentration in treated water bytailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants”,
Water Res., Vol.47, pp.2075-2084.
16. Jiang, J.Q. and Wang, H.Y., (2009), “Comparative
coagulant demand of polyferric chloride and ferric
chloride for the removal of humic acid”, Sep. Sci.
Technol., Vol.44, 386-397.
17. Cheng, Y.L., Wong, R.J., Lin, J.C.T., Huang, C., Lee,
D.J. and Mujumdar, A.S., (2010), “Water coagulation
using electrostatic patch coagulation (EPC) mechanism”,
Drying Technol., Vol.28, 850-857.
18. Jabeen, F., Rohila, D., Zohra, M. and Waheed, A.,
(1991), “Site and services scheme in Hayatabad”.
Unpublished M.Sc thesis, Department of Geography,
University of Peshawar, pp. 13-38.
19. Imranullah, and Maqbool, A., (1998), “Study of
Hayatabad (Phase-IV and Phase- V) for urban
planning by using Geographic Information System”.
Dept. of Civil Engineering NWFP University of
Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan,
20. Tila, S., Batool, S. and Wazeefa, S., (2008),
“Distribution of Perceived land values in various
phase of Hayatabad”, Unpublished M.Sc thesis,
Department of Geography Urban and Regional
planning, University of Peshawar, pp.20-25.
21. Peshawar Development Authority (PDA), (2011),
“Peshawar Profile”. Peshawar Development
Authority, Webpage:
23. American Public Health Association (APHA), (1992),
“Standard methods for the examination of water and
wastewater”. 18th edition, American public health
association, Washington DC, USA.
24. Heredia, O.S. and Cirelli, A.F., (2009). “Trace
elements distribution in soil, pore water and groundwater
in Buenos Aires, Argentina”, Geoderma,
Vol.149: 409–414.
25. Li, J., Li, F., Liu, Q. and Zhang, Y., 2014. “Tracemetal
in surfacewater and groundwater and its transfer in
a Yellow River alluvial fan: Evidence from isotopes
and hydrochemistry”, Sci Total Environ, Vol.472,
26. Simate, G.S., (2015). “The treatment of brewery
wastewater for reuse by integration of coagulation/
flocculation and sedimentation with carbon nanotubes‘
sandwiched’ in a granular filter bed”. Journal
of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol.21,
27. Ordo´n˜ez, R., Moral, A., Hermosilla, D. and Blanco,
A., (2012), “Combining coagulation, softening and
flocculation to dispose reverse osmosis retentates”,
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry,
Vol.18, pp926–933.
28. Rosenblum, J.S., Sitterley, K.A., Thurman, E.M.,
Ferrer, I., (2016), “Hydraulic fracturing wastewater
treatment by coagulation-adsorption for removal
of organic compounds and turbidity”, Journal
of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Vol.4,