JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES <p><img src="/public/site/images/smaqsood/pageHeaderTitleImage_en_US.jpg"></p> <p>The Journal of Engineering &amp; Applied Sciences (JEAS) is a bi-annual research journal published by the University of Engineering &amp; Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Shahid Maqsood) (Prof. Dr. Muddasar Habib) Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 DESIGN OF MINITURISED MIMO ANTENNA WITH W-LAN BAND NOTCHED FOR ULTRA WIDE BAND (UWB) APPLICATIONS <p><em>A miniaturized Multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) antenna is proposed for Ultra-wideband (UWB) applications having capability to mitigate interference with the WLAN (5.15GHZ-5.85GHZ) operating band. A ‘spider’ shape structure is etched on the ground as a decoupling structure to obtain impedance matching as well as desired isolation. W-LAN notched band in the entire Ultra Wide band is obtained by etching a couple of straight line on the ground plane. A very compact UWB-MIMO antenna with overall dimension of 20×20 mm<sup>2</sup> has been proposed which is smaller than most of other MIMO antennas designed for UWB. Impedance bandwidth for the proposed MIMO antenna is 2.9-11.1GHz with -10dB refection coefficient and isolation better than -16.5dB in the total Ultra Wide</em><em> band is achieved. </em></p> Numan Ahmad, Shahid Bashir, Shahid Rauf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Jan 2018 02:03:41 -0500 Characterization of Nickle Free Titanium Alloy TI-27Nb for Biomedical Applications <p><em>In recent years, there has been increasing prominence on materials applications in biomedical areas.&nbsp; This&nbsp; article focuses mainly on the low modulus titanium- based alloys. It discusses the biological bio-compatibility and mechanical properties of titanium alloy TI-27Nb and brings out the overall superiority of low modulus titanium based alloys neglecting the cost effect as because of the health concerns of human being. With the advancement in field of medical and material, it is now a well-known fact that the use of Ti alloys increased tremendously because of its better fundamental properties, like biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility and enhanced wear and corrosion resistance in the human body environment. This paper also narrates the influence of crystal structure, biological biocompatibility, low young modulus effect.&nbsp; </em></p> Muhammad Amjad, Saeed Badshah, Muhammad Adil Khattak, Rafi Ullah Khan, Muhammad Mujahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 A Novel Wideband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Applications <p>In this paper bandwidth enhanced microstrip patch antenna has been proposed for satellite communications. The bandwidth has been increased using parasitic patches. The size of the proposed antenna is 15x8 mm<sup>2</sup>. It has been observed that the antenna has a bandwidth of 4.08GHz, a return loss of 49.07 dB at the center frequency, a maximum gain of 8.25 dBi and total efficiency of more than 90%. This antenna can be prospective candidate for satellite communications.</p> Gulzar Ahmad, Muhammad Inyatullah Babar, Muhammad Irfan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2018 23:00:55 -0500 Analyzing the Effect of Squeeze Casting Process Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Overcast Al-Alloy Joint using RSM <p>This study contains, the overcast 2024-2024 wrought aluminium alloy joints produced by casting liquid 2024 wrought aluminium alloy onto the solid 2024 wrought aluminium alloy inserts using squeeze casting process. The quality of overcast joints fabricated via squeeze casting depend on mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength and yield strength. Mechanical properties depends upon the input casting parameters named as squeeze pressure, pressure duration and melt temperature. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to analyze the effect of above mentioned input parameters on UTS and YS. Empirical models for UTS and YS were developed which help the practitioners to achieve desired UTS and YS by using optimum vales of input parameters. ANOVA results shows that melt temperature has most significant effect on UTS and YS followed by squeeze pressure and pressure duration. Current study will provide efficacious approach to develop advance functional and structural materials.</p> Muhammad Asad Ali, Mirza Jahanzaib, Muhammad Ahsan Ul Haq ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY <p><em>Huge gap exists in infrastructure development between restive regions of Pakistan like Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Provincially Administrative Tribal Areas (FATA/ PATA) / hinterland of Baluchistan and remaining part of Pakistan. Government realized the importance of this under development in the aftermath of 9/11 and consequent unrest and trouble. Construction projects unleashed efforts to bring restive regions in line with rest of country. Project Managers running construction works in these areas face numerous challenges in the execution and decision-making. The important concerns include overstretched logistic support, insecure operating environment, difficult terrain, dearth of previously existing infrastructure, centuries old traditional cultural underpinnings, non-availability of skilled manpower / plant and machinery, non-acceptability of allied contractors, and larger operating distances of sites from base camps. </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;The paper identifies dynamics and variables in order of preference using multi-variant analysis for low productivity in restive regions.</em> <em>The author uses primary dataset and seeks feedback from the respondents through a comprehensive</em> <em>questionnaire containing twenty-six questions. Comparing circumstances and outcome of construction projects with remaining part of the country, the study finds that the cost of work in FATA / PATA and restive regions of Baluchistan is substantially high due to multiple factors and therefore recommendations a construction model for creating ideal circumstances for expediting pace of development and assuring timely completion of projects. The author adopts methodology of quantitative analysis using SPSS for drawing important conclusion from research.&nbsp; </em></p> Waqas Anwar, Iftikhar Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 -0400 Hydrodynamic Design of Tidal Current Turbine and the Effect of Solidity on Performance <p><em>Blade element momentum (BEM) flow model in conjunction with pattern search optimization algorithm embedded in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tool HARP_Opt was used to design a horizontal axis tidal current turbine (HATCT). The numerical method was validated with the experimental data and a good agreement was achieved. The designed turbine has a 3 bladed rotor of 4 meters diameter and rated mechanical power of 20 kW. Performance metrics of the rotor for steady and uniform flow was simulated at flow speeds from 0.5-3.5 m/s. The turbine achieved its rated power at a tip speed ratio (TSR) 5.7 with a peak C<sub>P</sub> value of 0.47 and peak thrust of </em><em>16.7 kN-m</em><em>. Additionally, a </em><em>series of simulations were performed at TSR &nbsp;from 1-10 to obtain performance curve for the turbine at a design current velocity of 1.5 m/s. </em><em>Effect of solidity on performance was quantified by varying the number of turbine blades. The value of C<sub>P</sub> increased by 1.5% with increasing the number of blades from 2 to 3. The value of C<sub>P</sub> further increased by only 0.2% with increase in number of blades from 3 to 4. The value of turbine thrust was minimally effected by increase in the number of blades. However, the value of thrust per blade increased with a reduction in number of blades. The increase in flap moment and thrust per blade with reduction in number of blades could have serious consequences for the structural integrity of the turbine.</em></p> Mujahid Badshah, Saeed Badshah, Sakhi Jan Khalil ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 01:48:58 -0500 Groundwater Recharge Quantification from Rainfall in Peshawar District-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p>Water is an unlimited and exquisite gift which has been given by nature. However, its increasing demand and current pattern of usage are threats to human welfare, livelihood, development, and for the life itself, in the coming years. The main objective of this study was to quantify the ground water recharge due to rainfall on yearly basis of Peshawar district Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Groundwater recharge was estimated by subtracting runoff from the rainfall. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method was used to estimate the runoff produced from rainfall events. As per the data provided by Pakistan Metrological Department, Peshawar, average annual rainfall in district Peshawar during 2002-2011 was 486.1 mm. The weighted curve number (CN) was found to &nbsp;be 82.0. Mean annual runoff produced was estimated to be 217.0 mm where as mean annual recharge to the groundwater was calculated and found to be 269.1 mm. Different water conservation techniques are recommended to increase water recharge in the study area. &nbsp;</p> Mahmood Alam Khan, Afzal Munir, Muahmmad Shahzad Khattak, Daulat Khan, Muhammad Ajmal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 Some Aggregation Operators for Bipolar-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Information based on Einstein Operational Laws <p>This article is based on Einstein operations for bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy sets (BVHFSs). We extend the concept of Einstein operators for BVHFSs by defining bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging (BPVHFEWA) operators and weighted geometric (BPVHFEWG) operators. Similarly, we define ordered weighted averaging operators and hybrid operators i.e. BVHFEOWA operators, BVHFEOWG operators, BVHFEHA operator and BVHFEHG operator. Further, these operators are applied in decision making DM) problems.</p> murad ullah khan, Tahir Mahmood ., Kifayat Ullah ., Naeem Jan ., Irfan Deli ., Qaisar Khan . ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 Fault-management on System’s level in CAN-based “Shared-Clock” Environments <p>This paper is in continuation to our previous work “Improving flexibility and fault-management in CAN-based “Shared-Clock” architectures”, published in the Journal of Microprocessors and Microsystems (Volume 37, 2013, issue 1, pages 9-23) which was concerned with fault-management on embedded level. &nbsp;In this paper, we intend to show that the use of a Port Guardian (PG) mechanism can also improve fault-management on system’s level.</p> Muhammad Amir, Syed Waqar Shah, Michael J. Pont ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 Analysis of Chip Produced in Free Machining of Ti-6Al-7Zr-3Nb-4Mo-0.9Nd and Ti-5Al-7Zr-7Nb-0.7Nd Alloys <p>The use of Titanium and its alloys in modern era can never be discarded. Continuous developments in many industries like aviation and power generation increased its use in many applications, not only because of&nbsp; its chemical properties but also because of its excellent properties including, high strength to density ratio, withstand with high stresses, better fatigue&nbsp; and corrosion properties and ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties of this alloy results in poor machinability, hence, make the automatic machining of these alloys nearly difficult. The main limitation of titanium and its alloys is that it produces long chips during machining which tangled around tool, hence; reduce tool life and sometime leads to fracture during conventional turning (CT). In recent days new two alloys are developed named Ti-6Al-7Zr-3Nb-4Mo-0.9Nd and Ti-5Al-7Zr-7Nb-0.7Nd with better performance in machining. These two developed alloys contain 0.9% and 0.7% neodymium by weight, respectively. It produces discontinuous chips during metal cutting, which make possible the automatic machining. It also reduces machining time and increase productivity. Ultrasonically assisted turning (UAT) was used to further improve its machinability. In addition, machinability of both newly developed alloy and Ti-6246 is studied by analyzing chip compression ratio, chip thickness and shearing angle. Overall, chip compression ratio is greater for UAT as compared to CT, which shows improved machinability.</p> Numan Habib, Naseer Ahmed, Riaz Muhammad, Himayat Ullah, Muftooh Ur Rehman, Kareem Akhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 EXTRACTION OF GOLD AND SILVER BY CYANIDATION PROCESS FROM COMPLEX ORE OF SHOUGHUR AREA CHITRAL, KYBER PAKHTUNKHWA <p><em>The aim of the research work was to optimize the cyanidation leaching parameters for maximum extraction of gold and silver from complex ore of Shoughur area of district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on laboratory scale testing. The research work was carried out into two parts. In first part the cyanidation parameters like grinding time, dosage of pH, cyanidation time, dosage of sodium cyanide (NaCN) and dosage of lime Ca (OH)<sub>2</sub> &nbsp;were optimized. The samples were subjected to differential grinding time varying from 20 to 35 minutes, pH of slurry adjusted from 9 to 11 by adding Ca (OH)<sub>2</sub> from 0.5 to 1.5 gm/kg&nbsp; , dosage of NaCN varies from&nbsp; 0.1% to 0.02 % and cyanidation time varies from 0 to 40 hours. The maximum yielded of 71.82 gm/ton of gold grade and silver grade of 34.34 gm/ton was obtained at grinding time of 25 minutes, particle size 63 um, pH 10.40, cyanidation time of 37 hours and at lime dosage of 0.5gm/kg. In the second part the cyanidation process was applied on roasted and un-roasted ore samples. The cyanidation time and grinding time were optimized. The maximum grade of gold 71.82 ppm and silver 25.95 ppm was extracted from roasted ore samples at cyanidation time of 35 hours and grinding time of 30 minutes as compared to unroasted ore samples. It is concluded that cyanidation process on roasted ore samples gives encouraged results as compared to un-roasted ore samples</em></p> Sajjad Hussain, Nisar Mohammad, Zahid Ur Rehman, Noor Muhammad Khan, Ishaq Ahmad, Naseer Muhammad Khan, Salim Raza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500